An early photo looking towards the Guildhall. Date: 1 December 1890,
Parishes within Norwich
- Norwich All Saints, Norfolk
- Norwich Cathedral, Norfolk
- Norwich County Gaol and House of Correction, Norfolk
- Norwich Liberty of the Town Close, Norfolk
- Norwich St Andrew, Norfolk
- Norwich St Augustine, Norfolk
- Norwich St Benedict, Norfolk
- Norwich St Clement, Norfolk
- Norwich St Edmund, Norfolk
- Norwich St Etheldreda, Norfolk
- Norwich St George Colegate, Norfolk
- Norwich St George Tombland, Norfolk
- Norwich St Giles, Norfolk
- Norwich St Gregory, Norfolk
- Norwich St Helen, Norfolk
- Norwich St James with Pockthorpe, Norfolk
- Norwich St John Maddermarket, Norfolk
- Norwich St John Timberhill, Norfolk
- Norwich St John de Sepulchre, Norfolk
- Norwich St Julian, Norfolk
- Norwich St Lawrence, Norfolk
- Norwich St Margaret, Norfolk
- Norwich St Martin at Oak, Norfolk
- Norwich St Martin at Palace, Norfolk
- Norwich St Mary Coslany, Norfolk
- Norwich St Mary in the Marsh, Norfolk
- Norwich St Michael Coslany, Norfolk
- Norwich St Michael at Plea, Norfolk
- Norwich St Michael at Thorn, Norfolk
- Norwich St Paul, Norfolk
- Norwich St Peter Hungate, Norfolk
- Norwich St Peter Mancroft, Norfolk
- Norwich St Peter Parmentergate, Norfolk
- Norwich St Peter Southgate, Norfolk
- Norwich St Saviour, Norfolk
- Norwich St Simon and St Jude, Norfolk
- Norwich St Stephen, Norfolk
- Norwich St Swithin, Norfolk
The Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales 1870
NORWICH, a city and a district in Norfolk, and a diocese in Norfolk and Suffolk. The city stands on the river Wensum, immediately above the confluence with the Yare, at a focus of the Great Eastern railway system, nearly in the centre of the eastern half of Norfolk, 19 miles W of Yarmouth, 43 N of Ipswich, and 1 10 by road, but 126 by railway, N E by N of London. A navigation goes from it, down the Yare, to two exits at Yarmouth and Lowestoft; railways go from it, eastward, south-south-westward, and south-westward, soon running into branches and junctions which give communication with all parts of England; a telegraphic line goes from it northward to Cromer, connecting there with the sub-marine telegraph to the Continent; and a railway, in course of formation in 1867, goes from a junction 5½ miles E of it at Brundall north-by-westward to North Walsham. The city has two railway-stations; and, in consequence of an utter want of railways throughout the N E quarter of the county, has hither to been the railway entrepot for all that quarter.
History.—Norwich sprang out of the decay of the Roman Venta Icenorum, now Caistor, St. Edmunds, 3 miles to the S. Uffa, the founder of the East Anglian monarchy, constructed a castle or fortress on its site, and made it his residence. The site was then part of a peninsula, projecting into an estuary; and it gave good facilities for at once the constructing of defensive works, the creating of a fishing-town, and the fostering of trade. Anglo-Saxon settlers seem to have soon multiplied around Uffa’s castle; and, in allusion to the situation relative to Caistor, they called the place Nordwic or Northwic, signifying North-town. Some recent writers, however, contend that Norwich itself, and not Caistor, was the Roman Venta Icenorum. Anna, king of the East Angles, held his court in the royal residence at the castle. The town was taken by the Danes, in 870, after their defeat of King Edmund; was re-taken, in 872, by Alfred the Great; was taken again by Guthrum the Dane, or surrendered to him, and became his capital; was taken and burnt, in 1004, by Sweyne; was re-settled, in 1010, by the Danes, who then were able to come to it from the sea in their boats; was held, in 1018, by Torchil and Canute, who restored or rebuilt the castle; rose then to much importance, and soon had a mint; was so great in the time of Edward the Confessor as then to possess 25churches and 1, 320 burgesses; was given, by William the Conqueror, to Ralph de Guader or Waiet; sustained a disastrous siege by the king’s forces, in 1074, in consequence of De Guader having conspired against the Crown, and of his wife, with a strong garrison, having taken post in the castle; suffered then very great damage, partly from the operations of the siege, but still more from the imposition of heavy fines on the citizens, as a price for averting the demolition of their houses; went, immediately afterwards, into possession of Hugh Bigod, who had distinguished himself in the battle of Hastings, and who again restored or rebuilt the castle; figures in the Domesday book of 1086 as having many untenanted dwellings, and yet as having 54 churches and 1, 565burgesses; and became the seat of a bishopric in 1094, through the removal to it of the see of Thetford, by Bishop Herbert de Losinga, who founded and endowed the cathedral, and built the episcopal palace.
Henry I., in 1122, held his Christmas in the city, and raised it to an equality of franchise and privilege with London. A vast body of Jews, about that time, settled in it; they afterwards got embroiled in contest with the monks; and, in 1189, accused of crucifying a Christian boy, and generally rendered obnoxious through their collisions with the monks, they were almost exterminated by massacre. Henry II. kept Christmas at Norwich in 1156; and the barons who rebelled against him took the city in 1173-4. Louis the Dauphin took the castle and plundered the city in 1216. Serious riots of the citizens occurred in 1234 and 1272, arose from provocation by the monks, and caused partial demolitions of the Benedictine priory and the cathedral. Henry III.visited the city in the last year of his reign; Edward I., in 1278 and 1292; and Edward III., in 1340, 1342, and 1344. Edward II. gave it to his brother Thomas, as the head of an honour of 120 knights’ fees, or 85,000 acres; and the castle then became the county prison. A deep wide ditch, to serve in lieu of a surrounding wall, was dug around the city in the time of Henry II.; and a regular system of fortification, consisting of embattled walls, with towers, portcullises gates, and military engines, was constructed between 1294 and 1342. A large number of Flemings settled in the city about 1336; introduced the manufacture of woollens, worsteds, and crapes; and occasioned a rapid increase of trade, wealth, and population. Queen Philippa, accompanied on one occasion by Edward III., on another by the Black Prince, repeatedly visited the city between 1340 and 1350; and was entertained, on two of the occasions, with grand and costly tournaments. About one-third of the inhabitants were struck down, in 1348-9, by the plague called the “black death.” The Norfolk levellers, at the time of Wat Tyler’s rebellion, in 1381, besieged the city, pillaged the houses of the wealthier citizens, and perpetrated much general injury; but were overcome and driven off by Bishop Spencer of Norwich. That prelate also volunteered his services as a military leader to Richard II.; raised several regiments; and fought at their head in Flanders, in the contest between Urban and Clement for the papal tiara. Henry IV. visited the city in 1406; Henry VI., in 1448-9; and Henry VII., in 1485. The citizens repeatedly made loans to the kings; they once, immediately before the victory of Agincourt, received the royal coronet in pawn; and they twice, in consequence of suing Henry VI. for a sum lent him, as also for quarrelling with the monks, were temporarily deprived of their charter.
Five great fires, between 1463 and 1507, greatly desolated the city; and the last of them destroyed no fewer than 718 houses. Bishop Nix of Norwich, a little before Henry VIII.’s declaring against the papacy, sent to the stake Thomas Bilney and several other reformers. The insurgents under the two Ketts, in 1549, marched against Norwich; overcame and routed, in two actions, a force sent against them under the Marquis of Northampton; took possession of the city, pillaged it, and burnt a large part of it; and, when eventually confronted with an army under the Earl of Warwick, maintained a hard and sanguinary struggle from post to post throughout the environs, and did not yield till upwards of 3,000 of them were slain and a much larger number wounded. One of their two chief leaders was afterwards executed on the top of the castle; and about 300 of the secondary leaders, in different parts of the city. Several Protestants, under the administration of the “Bloody” Mary in 1557-8, were burnt in Norwich. Eight or nine visitations of pestilence, called variously plague and sweating sickness, made havoc in the city between 1486 and 1665; and four of them carried off respectively 1,431, 2,251, 3,076, and 4,817 persons. Queen Elizabeth visited Norwich in 1576 and 1578. Upwards of 300 Flemings, driven from their native land by the persecutions under the Duke of Alva, settled in Norwich in 1565-6; combined with the offspring of the previous Flemish settlers to stimulate its prosperity; introduced the bombazeen trade; and through the fostering and politic measures of Elizabeth, greatly improved and extended the woollen and worsted manufactures. The number of Flemings residing in the city in 1582 was no fewer than 4, 679. Great floods occurred in 1570, 1646, 1697, and 1706, and did serious damage. Norwich was garrisoned in the cause of the parliamentarians, during the civil wars of Charles I.; but it sustained no conflict, and only paid a quota of pecuniary contribution toward the reduction of other parts of the kingdom. A body of insurgents rose in the city in 1648; took possession of the depot of the county arms; and, just after the arrival of a troop of cavalry to suppress them, were dispersed by an accidental and very disastrous explosion of 98 barrels of gunpowder. Charles II. visited the city in 1671. A mob, at the Revolution, destroyed a Romish chapel, and pillaged many dwellings of Romanists; but, within 36 hours, were dispersed by the trained bands. Queen Anne once visited the city; the Royal Agricultural Society held a meeting in it in 1848; and the British Association, at their annual meeting in 1867, appointed their next meeting to be held in Norwich in the autumn of 1868.
Archbishop Parker, 1504-75, Bishop Cousin, 1595-1672, Bishop T. Greene, 1658-1738, Dr. Kaye or Cains, 1510-73, founder of Cains College, and Wild, a learned tailor, were natives of Norwich, and were educated at its grammar school. Sir John de Norwich, of the time of Edward III.; Sir P. Read, who died in 1566; Bishop Bateman, founder of Trinity College, Cambridge; Allen, the theologian, 1608-73; J. Francis, the theologian, 1700-49; Salter, the Greek scholar, who died in 1778: E. Pearson, the theologian, 1756-1811; Vinke, the theologian, who died in 1702; Dr. Samuel Clarke, 1675-1729; W. Beloe, the translator of “Herodotus, ” 1758-1817; Rett, the theologian, 1761-1826; T. Browne, the physician, 1642-1708; W. Cunningham, the physician and natural philosopher, 1531-59; Goslin, the physician, who died in 1625; Briggs, the anatomist; Clover, the veterinary surgeon; T. and E. Legge, the antiquaries; King, the author of “Munimenta Antiqua, ” 1734-1807; Capon, the scene painter, 1757-1828; Catton, the artist, who died in 1798; J. Hooke, the composer, 1746-1813; Dr. Crotch, the musician; Cotman, the painter, 1780-1843; R. Greene, the poet, 1566-92; Hansard, theprinter, 1752-1828; Harmer, the biblical writer, 1715-88; W. Rawleigh, the editor of ” Bacon; ” Sir J. E. Smith, the author of ” Flora Britannica, ” 1759-1828; R. Woodhouse, the mathematician, who died in 1827; Fransham, the polytheist, 1730-1810; and W. Taylor, the German scholar, 1765-1836, also were natives. Bishop Hall, Sir Thomas Browne, Cave the printer, Blomefield the county historian, and many other distinguished persons, were residents.
Site and Structure.—The city-technical, as defined by the borough boundaries, measures about 4 miles in diameter, and about 14 in circuit; and includes much rural ground, with many orchards and gardens. The city-proper, as defined by the ancient walls, measures about 1½ mile in extreme length, 1 mile in extreme breadth, and 4 miles in circuit; but, since about 1810, has, on several sides, especially on the W and the S W, acquired suburban extensions aggregately equal to nearly one-third of the intra-mural area. The Wensum approaches it on the N W, and leaves it on the S E; pursues, during contact with it, a boldly serpentine course; first traces for a brief way the W limits, then describes a semicircle round one-fourth of the town on its left bank, then goes sinuously through a thinly edificed section, and then traverses a compact E portion. An eminence, exaggerated into hill by the flatness of the surrounding country, extends along the right bank of the river, and terminates near its last bend; and this eminence bears on its summit and its slopes all the more ancient parts of the city, and a large proportion of its present streets and buildings. The outline of the area within the ancient walls somewhat resembles that of a cornucopia, with the narrow end twisted round from the S to the S E; and has not unaptly been compared to the figure of a shoulder of venison. The ground within it had once a profusion of gardens, shrubberies, and trees, in so much that Camden doubted whether to call Norwich a city in an orchard or an orchard in a city; and, though now bereft of many of its sylvan ornaments by the intrusion of new streets and modern erections, it still maintains much greenery, and presents an airy aspect. The wall which surrounded it was flint-built, strong, and embattled; was flanked with 40 towers, and pierced with 12 beautiful gates; and was defended with a broad ditch, except at two places where the Wensum served instead; but, having fallen into decay, and being considered a hindrance to the town’s growth and improvement, it was, many years ago, stripped of all its gates, denuded of its ditch, levelled over much of its own extent, and permitted to stand only in some broken reaches; and, in Oct. 1866, by a vote of 20 against 17 in the city council, the surviving parts of it on Chapelfield, including one of the towers, were ordered to be taken down. The old streets, in general, are very irregularly aligned, narrow, and winding; and some of them follow the line of the ancient wall. But the new streets, on the whole, are regular and spacious; and a recently opened one, called Prince of Wales road, is edificed with first-class houses, and forms a wide and convenient thoroughfare to Thorpe railway-station. The market-place, in the centre of the city, is an oblong of 600 feet by 340, not excelled inconvenience by many market-places in England; and, being generally edificed with antique houses of the gable-front construction, and overhung by the singularly massive square tower of St. Peter-Mancroft, it offers a fine subject to the painter of urban landscape. Many of the dwelling-houses and other edifices in most of the old streets are well-built; those on the E, in the vicinity of the cathedral, are large and handsome; and those in the new streets are generally substantial and neat. Many of the semi-public buildings also, such as a large hotel erected in 1865, the office of the National Provincial Bank erected in the same year, and the office of the Crown Bank on the Castle meadow, are ornamental and imposing. Ten bridges span the Wensum within the city; and two of these are modern structures of cast iron, several are fine specimens of ancient masonry, and the Bishop’s bridge, built in 1295, is much patched, and has an arch of 43 feet in span. Ten hamlets formerly lay scattered in the tract between the city-walls and the borough boundaries, and were strictly rural; but most of them are now contiguous, handsome, populous suburbs. Two curious old mansions are Fastolf’s Place, or Falstaff s Palace, built before 1459 by Fastolf of Caistor, and Surrey House, or Mount Surrey House, a Tudor edifice on Mousewold Heath, where the Duke of Norfolk, in the time of Henry VIII., had a palace more magnificent than any then in England out of London.
Public Buildings.—The Castle stands on the shoulder of the hill, S E of the centre of the ancient city; and is very conspicuous. It formerly occupied 23 acres; and, according to the account commonly given of it, consisted of a barbican or outwork, to defend the entrance, three nearly circular concentric lines of defence, each consisting of a wall and ditch, and enclosing a ballium or court, and a great central keep, as the last resort in the event of a siege. The Barbican bridge still stands, is 140 feet long, and has an arch of 43 feet in span. The Dungeon tower, situated in St. Giles Hospital meadow, on the W bank of the Wensum, and formerly serving as an advance post, and said to have been rebuilt in 1390, likewise still stands, and is a circular edifice about 24 feet in diameter, and 52 feet in height. Part of the ancient area of the castle has been intruded on by the town; part has, since 1738, be enused as the cattle market; and the central part, around the keep, and amounting to nearly 6½ acres, is called the Castle precinct, and was vested, by an act of 1806, in the justices of Norfolk, with power “to build, repair, or alter anything belonging to it as they may think proper.” The outer vallum was, ages ago, filled up; and the middle vallum was more recently levelled; or perhaps, as argued by a recent authority, they never really existed. The bridge of the inner vallum still exists, and is considered a perfect and beautiful specimen of the Saxon arch; and at its inner end are remains of two round towers, 14 feet in diameter, supposed to have flanked the portal. The area of the inner court is level but comparatively high, and commands a map-like view of the city and the circumjacent country. The great keep, situated within this area, is a massive quadrangular pile, 110¼ feet long from E to W, 92 feet 10 inches broad from N to S, and 69½ feet high to the top of the battlements. The basement story is 24 feet high; is faced exteriorly with flints; and, excepting two arches on the W side, is destitute of ornament. Three stories intervene from the basement to the battlements; and each is strengthened by small buttresses, and adorned with semi-circular arches resting on small three-quarter columns. A kind of reticulated work, formed by the stones being laid diagonally, decorates the backs of some of the arches or arcades; and, in consequence of each stone having two deeply chased lines crossing each other in directions parallel to the joints, the work exhibits the appearance of mosaic. The entire keep has been regarded, by some writers, as Saxon of the time of Canute; by others, with much better evidence, as Norman of the time of William Rufus, with subsequent restoration. A projecting tower on the E, originally pierced with an open portal to the grand entrance, is of a richer kind of architecture, unquestionably Norman; bears the name of Bigod’s tower; and was restored about 1824, so as now to exhibit its pristine aspect. The interior of the keep was so greatly altered, to adapt it to the purposes of a jail, that the original arrangement of its apartments can be little more than conjectured; and even the exterior of it, on the E side, is so much blocked by the juxtaposition of the modern jail as to be greatly denuded of its proper effect on the eye. The boundary of the ancient upper balliumis 360 yards in circuit; has, on part of its margin, the base of two sides of the keep; and is represented by auiron-palisade enclosure, provided with iron-gates, and carried round from the parapet of the bridge to the porter’s lodge. Another or outer boundary, at the bottom of the hill, is about 570 yards in circuit; and is traced by an enclosure of large iron-palisades, raised on a low wall, and surmounted at suitable intervals by public lights. Part of the enclosed space is occupied by the county jail and the county hall; and the rest has well planted gardens and a terrace walk, is open to the public, and commands rich panoramic views.
The County Jail stands on the E side of the Castle-keep; succeeded a previous county jail, on the same site, built in 1793, at a cost of £15,000; was itself built in 1824-8, at a cost of £50,000; comprises governor’s house and three radiating wings; and has capacity for 224 male prisoners. The County Hall stands on the N E side of the inner vallum. of the castle; succeeded a previous county hall, on the same site, built in 1749; was itself built in 1822-3, after designs by W. Wilkins, a native of the city; is a handsome edifice, in the Tudor style, of brick so cased with cement as to look like stone; communicates with the jail by a subterranean passage; and, as well as that building, is surrounded by a high wall, faced with granite, and battlemented with sandstone. The City Jail stands near the site of St. Giles’ gate; was built in 1824-7, after designs by P. Barnes, a native of the city, at a cost of about £30,000; occupies an enclosed area of more than 1½ acre; is a hollow quadrangle, with towers at the angles; shows, on the front, some Tuscan decorations; and has capacity for 94 male and 23 female prisoners. The Cavalry barracks are situated at Pockthorpe; were erected, by government, in 1791-3; are a handsome suite of red brick buildings, on three sides of a quadrangle; and contain accommodation for five or six troops of cavalry.
The Guildhall stands at the N end of the market-place; succeeded, on the same site, an ancient thatched building, called the Tolbooth; was built, nearly in its present form, between 1407 and 1453; is a large edifice, constructed chiefly of flint; and contains many fine portraits, some interesting trophies of the battle of St. Vincent presented by Nelson, the city regalia, and the buskins of a famous dancer of the time of Elizabeth. St. Andrew’s Hall stands in St. Andrew’s plain; was originally the nave of the Black Friars’ church; was built in 1415 and several following years, by Sir Thomas Erpingham and his son, as an addition to the original church; was repaired and altered, and had a porch added, in 1774; measures 124 feet in length and 70 feet in breadth; is of 13 bays; has 2 windows in the E end, 3 in the W end, 14 on each side of the upper tier, and 6 in the lower; presents a unique and beautiful appearance, with roof supported by 12 slender pillars; contains a numerous collection of portraits, and some interesting curiosities; and is used for musical festivals, public dinners, and public meetings. A handsome steeple formerly rose between it and the choir, but fell in 1712. The choir was, for some time, used as a public chapel of the corporation; became afterwards the Dutch church; and is now used as the chapel of the workhouse, which adjoins it. The church was given, at the dissolution of monasteries, to the city; and three alleys of a brick cloister, which belonged to it, are still standing. The Freemasons’ Hall stands in Theatre-square, and has a suite of rooms143 feet long. Noverre’s Assembly Room adjoins the Freemasons’ Hall; measures 70 feet by 35; is well ventilated, and well suited for concerts; has ante-rooms; and opens on a splendid lawn, with conservatory, spacious entrances, and separate ways of egress. Theatre stands in Theatre-street, was built in 1826, and is large and convenient. St. Peter’s Hall also is in Theatre-street; and has been purchased to be used by the Scotch Presbyterians as a place of worship. The Corn Exchange stands in Exchange-street; was built in 1826, at a cost of £6,000; is in the Grecian style; has a glazed roof; and contains a portrait of its founder J. Culley, Esq., and a portrait of T. W. Coke, afterwards Earl of Leicester. A new Corn Exchange was built in 1862, after designs by Barry and Butcher, at a cost of about £8,000; is in the Italian style, of six bays, with lofty semi-circular-headed windows; consists of white brick, with red bands and stone mouldings; measures 125 feet in length, 81 feet in width, and 66 feet in height to the apex of the roof; and is divided into nave and aisles, by ten columns in two rows, supporting a roof of iron and glass. The Cattle-market was enlarged and improved, in result of negotiations and resolutions in 1861, at a cost of about £20,000. Butchers’ stalls and a fish-market are in the marketplace. There is also a seed and skin market. Other public buildings will be noticed in subsequent paragraphs.
The Cathedral.—The Cathedral stands, within a close or precinct, about ¼ of a mile N E of the Castle, and about half that distance from the nearest part of the right bank of the Wensum. It was founded, in 1096, by Bishop Herbert de Losinga; and was extended, embellished, altered, and repaired, by subsequent bishops and by wealthy families, till it attained completion so late as about 1500. The choir with aisles, the transept, and the central tower were built mainly by De Losinga; the nave with aisles was built, in 1121-1200, by Everard and by John of Oxford; the Lady chapel, afterwards destroyed by Dean Gardiner to save the cost of repairs, was built, in 1244-57, by Walter de Suffield; the entire pile, after having been damaged by a fire occasioned by feuds between the monks and the townsmen, was repaired, in 1278 and previous years, by Walter de Middleton; a chapter-house, destroyed in 1298, was built, in 1216-26, by John de Wakeling; a wooden spire, covered with lead, was built, in 1295, by Ralph Walpole; the cloisters, though not completed till 1430, were commenced, in 1297, also by Ralph Walpole; the palace-hall, the greater part of the charnel-house, the S walk of the cloisters, three bays of the gallery, and a chantry-chapel were built, in 1299-1325, by Bishop Salmon; a stone spire, in lieu of the wooden one overwhelmed by a hurricane in 1362, was built in 1364-9, by Bishop Percy, and repaired, in 1446-72, by Bishop Lyhart; the rood-screen was built, a new floor was laid, a stone vaulting of the nave was added, the great W window was inserted, and the Norman portal was altered into pointed architecture, also in 1446-72, by Bishop Lyhart; the vaulting of the choir was constructed, the flying-buttresses to resist the thrust of the new stone-work of that vaulting were built, the masking of the lower part of the choir was done, and the clerestory in perpendicular architecture was added in 1472-99, by Bishop Coldwell; and the stone-vaulting of the transept was constructed, about 1500, by Bishop Nix. Alternate dilapidations and restorations followed; the dilapidations were sometimes sudden, sometimes gradual; and the restorations have continued, at frequent intervals, almost to the present day. The entire pile was repaired and beautified, on an extensive scale, in 1806-7; the decayed ornaments of the W front were restored, and many improvements on other parts were effected, in 1818 and following years; the S front was renovated, and several houses which had stood against the walls and blocked various beautiful arches and other important features, were removed in 1831; the entire fabric was again restored, on a plan of Edward Blore, about 1840-3; and some portions were repaired, some embellishments were added, and some interesting ancient hidden features were brought into view, in years from 1843 till 1867.
The pile, as it now stands, comprises a nave of fourteen bays with aisles, a transept of three bays in each wing, a central steeple, an apsidal sacristy on the NE side, a choir of four bays with aisles, an apsidal end, and a procession-path, three chapels on respectively the S side, the NE side, and the SE, and a cloister with each alley of eleven panes to the S of the nave. The nave is 230 feet long, 97 feet wide, and 73 feet high; the transept is 191 feet long, 36½ feet wide, and 73 feet high; the steeple is 313 feet high; the choir is 165 feet long; 45 feet wide, and 83 feet high; the cloister is 177 feet long from E to W, 76 feet long from N to S, 14¾ feet wide, and 15 feet high; and the entire pile is 411 feet long. The lady-chapel was 57¼ feet long and 361/3 feet wide. The Cathedral looks best as seen from the S Wangle of the cloister; presents, both to that point of view and to others, a very imposing appearance; and derives great dignity from tiers of arcades, and from its very soaring spire; yet suffers severely from the weather-worn aspect of the stones, from the comparative meagreness of its knots of ornament, from the absence of massive buttresses, and especially from the want of W tall towers or steeples; and fails, on the whole, not withstanding its magnitude, to claim a higher rank than a secondary one among the cathedrals of England.
The central division of the W front is pierced with the grand entrance door-way, and with a large central window; and rises into a gable, pierced with a small light, flanked by two turrets with spirelets and round-headed single panels, and surmounted by a cross. The grand entrance door-way is formed by a bold deep-pointed arch; and is much enriched, in the spandrels and side-fascia, with mouldings, niches, pedestals, statues, and other decorations. The large central window is divided both horizontally and vertically into three leading compartments, and subdivided by small mullions; has good decorations, of perpendicular character; and was filled in 1854 with stained glass, to the memory of Bishop Stanley. Each of the two lateral divisions of the W front exhibits pure Norman architecture; is of three stories, the first pierced with the doorway to the aisle, the second pierced with four windows separated only by small columns, the third displaying three blank arches; and is flanked with a small staircase turret. The N and the S elevations of the nave show a three-storied aisle, a clerestory with triforium, and an embattled parapet on both; have an uncommon height; and exhibit tiers of Norman blank arches or arcades, with some late perpendicular windows. The interior of the nave looks much too long in proportion to the rest of the fabric; and the triforium is out of keeping, in consequence of its heavy circular arches being too high as compared with those of the tier below; but the piers of the nave, with the grand arches which they support, are splendid specimens of Norman architecture and decoration; and the stone roof shows elaborate ornature in 300 figures from Scripture subjects. The S transept is Norman, modified by a few innovations; and is flanked by square turrets, arcaded at the top, and terminating in pinnacles. The N transept is of similar character. The tower is grandly Norman, in four stages, each adorned with arcades, columns, and tracery-mouldings of very varied workmanship; has, at the corners, square turrets with their angles cut off; and is surmounted by decorated battlements and crocketted pinnacles. The spire is decorated English, octangular, and elegantly proportioned; is encircled with bands, and boldly crocketted in ribs running up its angles; terminates in a handsome finial; and is the loftiest spire in England. The choir extends two bays, across the transept, into the nave; exhibits an architectural character very dis-similar to that of the parts already described; presents curious traces of the original structure built by Losinga; is twisted out of form in its E elevation; has windows of four-lights set between canopied niches in the clerestory, semicircular windows in the triforium, and windows set in a pentagon in the apse; and derives impressiveness from the long vista of a presbytery, unencumbered with wood-work, and loftier than the nave and the transept. The Beauchamp chapel, on the S side, is now the Consistory court; Jesus’ chapel, on the N E side, is used by the Bishop; and St. Luke’s chapel, on the S, is now used as the parish church of St. Mary-in-the-Marsh. The cloister shows considerable beauty, and is the largest in England; exhibits bosses with sculptured figures; and has, over the W door, a carved representation of thee spousals of Adam and Eve.
A small chamber, with a hagioscope, probably a hermitage, is in the N aisle of the choir. An episcopal throne stood formerly behind the altar, and was ascended by steps at the end of the choir; and the feet of it still exist on the top of the wall over the altar. A rich screen is on each side of the presbytery. A beautiful later English font, adorned with a very fine representation of the Lord’s Supper, is in St. Luke’s chapel. Three frescoes, seemingly of the 14th century, were discovered in the S aisle, toward the end of 1862, in the course of erecting a series of mural tablets to the Wodehouse family; and one of them commemorates Bishop Wulstan of Worcester, 1062-95, and represents him receiving his pastoral staff from Edward the Confessor. A panel-picture or retable of the 14th century, is preserved; measuring 7 feet 5 inches by 2 feet 4 inches; and representing, in five compartments, the scourging of our Lord, his bearing the cross, his crucifixion, his resurrection, and his ascension. So many as 100 brasses are said to have been stolen out of the cathedral. The chief monuments now in it are an altar-tomb of Bishop Parkhurst, a flat over-arched monument of Bishop Nix, an altar-tomb of Chancellor Miles Spencer of the 16th century, and an altar-tomb of Attorney-General Sir J. Hobart of the same century, in the nave; a memorial window of 1851 to Professor Smyth of Cambridge, in the N aisle of the nave; an altar-tomb of Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Wyndham of the 15th century, and a Carrara marble statue of Bishop Bathurst by Chantrey, in Jesus chapel; a monument of Sir W. Boleyn, great-grand father of Queen Elizabeth, in St. Luke’s chapel; a highly decorated white marble altar-tomb of Bishop Goldwell, with rich effigies and canopy, in the chancel; and a modern altar-tomb of Bishop Herbert, a tomb of Bishop Wakeryng, a tomb of Prior W. Walsham, a low tomb of Sir Thomas Erpingham, and a monument of Lady Elizabeth Calthorp, in the choir.
The Bishop’s palace stands immediately N of the Cathedral; is an extensive and irregular pile, originally built by Bishop Salmon, enlarged by several subsequent prelates, greatly injured in the civil wars, and restored by Bishop Reynolds; retains only a small portion of the original structure, now used as out-offices; and exhibits a diversity of character, corresponding to the dates of its enlargements and renovations. Remains of a gatehouse built by Bishop Salmon, of a hall 110 feet by 60, built in 1299-1325, and destroyed by Cromwell, and a bishop’s chapel 130 feet by 30, of decorated English date, are in the palace gardens. The deanery, anciently the porter’s lodge, stands near the S side of the cathedral, is a large edifice of different periods, and possesses several valuable paintings by Italian masters. The prebendal houses, and some Norman remains of a Benedictine priory, founded by Losinga, are in the vicinity of the deanery. The charnel-house, now the free school, stands near the W end of the cathedral; was endowed for fourpriests; and consisted of a chapel and offices for the priests, now used for the school and schoolmaster, and an arched vault or burying-crypt, supported by two rows of columns 14 feet high, and now converted into cellars. The Cathedral precinct comprehends the Upper Close, the Lower Close, Life’s Green, and 15½ acres of garden ground; forms the peculiar jurisdiction of the dean and chapter, together with the parish of St. Mary-in-the-Marsh; and communicates with the city through three gates, called the Erpingham, St. Ethelbert’s, and St. Martin’s. The Erpingham gate was built by Sir Thomas Erpingham, who died in 1420; forms a very early specimen of Norfolk ornamental flint-work; is a stately structure, set between two semi-octangular buttresses, profusely sculptured with thirty-eight small statues, shields, birds, and foliage; and has, over the portal, an effigies of the founder. St. Ethelbert’s gate was built by the citizens, in compensation of injuries inflicted during a popular commotion in 1272; and has, above the doors, a black flint chapel, erected in lien of the church of St. Ethelbert, older than the Cathedral, and burnt during the commotion. St. Martin’s gate, called also the Palace gate, was built in 1430, by Bishop Alnwick; was enlarged, with addition of doors, by Bishop Lyhart; and has a canopied niche, containing the effigies of a king. A marble statue of Nelson, by Milner, stands in the enclosure of the Upper Close, in front of the grammar school.
Parishes.—The parishes within the city, together with their respective pop. in 1861 and their real property in 1860, are All Saints, 667, £2, 280; St. Andrew, 978, £7, 828; St. Augustine, 1,890, £4, 281; St. Benedict, 1, 381, £1, 869; St. Clement, 3, 961, £7, 554; Earlham, 195, £1, 845; Eaton, St. Andrew, 930, £8, 759; St. Edmund, 753, £1, 706; St. Etheldred, 614, £1, 559; St. George-Colegate, 1, 607, £4, 983; St. George-Tombland, 687, £4, 865; St. Giles, 1, 586, £6, 391; St. Gregory, 934, £4, 936; Heigham, 13, 894, £36, 799; St. Helen, 507, £901; St. James, 3, 408, £5, 384; St. John-Madder market, 537, £4, 959; St. John-Sepulchre, 2, 219, £4, 452; St. John-Timberhill, 1, 302, £2, 496; St. Julian, 1, 361, £3, 142; Lakenham, 4, 866, £15, 745; St. Lawrence, 877, £2, 421; St. Margaret, 664, £1, 608; St. Martin-at-Oak, 2, 546, £3, 789; St. Martin-at-Palace, 1,085, £3, 267; St. Mary-at-Coslany, 1, 498, £3,081; St. Mary-in-the-Marsh, 451, £4, 289; St. Michael-at-Coslany, 1, 365, £3,052; St. Michael-at-Plea, 379, £3, 504; St. Michael-at-Thorn, 2, 121, £4, 617; St. Paul, 2, 907, £4, 391; St. Peter-Hungate, 399, £1, 105; St. Peter-Mancroft, 2, 575, £22, 615; St. Peter-Mountergate, 2, 868, £7, 567; St. Peter-Southgate, 457, £3, 337; St. Saviour 1, 532; £3, 805; St. Simon and St. Jude, 283, £1, 221; St. Stephen, 4, 191, £15, 321; and St. Swithin, 699, £2, 174. There are also within the city, Hellesdon hamlet, pop., 393, belonging to Hellesdon parish; Thorpe hamlet, pop., 2, 388, belonging to Thorpe, St. Andrew parish; Trowse-Millgate, Carrow, and Bracondale hamlets, pop., 687, belonging to Trowse parish; and Town Close liberty, pop., 249, extra-parochial. The pop. in 1861 and the real property in 1860 of all Hellesdon were 496, £3, 376; of all Thorpe, St. Andrew, 3, 841, £9,003; of all Trowse, 1, 404, £3, 534.
The ecclesiastical statistics of Earlham, Eaton, St. Andrew, Heigham, Hellesdon, Lakenham, Thorpe, St. Andrew, and Trowse are given in separate articles on-their own localities. The status, value, and patrons of the other city livings are, All Saints, a rectory, £260, the Rev.F. Sculthorpe; St. Andrew, a vicarage, £90, the Parishioners; St. Augustine, a rectory, £150, the Dean and Chapter; St. Benedict, a vicarage, £115, the Parishioners; St. Clement, a rectory, £96, Cains College, Cambridge; St. Edmund, a rectory, £165, the Rev. T. Taylor; St. Etheldred, a vicarage, £77, Trustees; St. George-Colegate, a vicarage, £98, the Dean and Chapter; St. George-Tombland, a vicarage, £144, the Bishop; St. Giles, a vicarage, £70, the Dean and Chapter; St. Gregory, a vicarage, £120, the Dean and Chapter; St. Helen, a vicarage, £200, Trustees; St. James, a vicarage, £150, the Dean and Chapter; St. John-Maddermarket, a rectory, £150, New College, Oxford; St. John Sepulchre, a vicarage, £144, the Dean and Chapter; St. John-Timberhill, a vicarage, £120, the Dean and Chapter; St. Julian, a rectory, annexed to All Saints; St. Lawrence, a rectory, £82, the Lord Chancellor; St. Margaret, a rectory, £80, the Bishop; St. Martin-at-Oak, a vicarage, £102, the Dean and Chapter; St. Martin-at-Palace, a vicarage, £70, the Dean and Chapter; St. Mary-at-Coslany, a vicarage, £124, Marquis Townshend; St. Mary-in-the-Marsh, a vicarage, £110, the Dean and Chapter; St. Michael-at-Coslany, a rectory, £117, Cains College, Cambridge; St. Michael-at-Plea, a rectory, £85, Sir T. B. Lennard and J. Morse, Esq.; St. Michael-at-Thorn, a vicarage, £100, the Marquis of Lothian; St. Paul, a rectory, £150, the Dean and Chapter; St. Peter-Hungate, a rectory, £43, the Lord Chancellor; St. Peter-Mancroft, a vicarage, £87, the Parishioners; St. Peter-Mountergate, a vicarage, £78, the Dean and Chapter; St. Peter-Southgate, a rectory, £61, the Bishop; St. Saviour, a vicarage, £85, the Dean and Chapter; St. Simon and St. Jude, a rectory, £65, the Bishop; St. Stephen, a vicarage, £300, the Dean and Chapter; St. Swithin, a rectory, £105, the Bishop. There are also a chapelry of Christ church in St. Clement parish, a vicarage, £150, the Rector of St. Clement; a chapelry of St. Matthew in Thorpe parish, a vicarage, £99, the Rector of Thorpe; a chapelry of Pockthorpe in St. James’ parish, annexed to the incumbency of St. James; and a chapelry of Trinity in Heigham parish, annexed to the rectory of Heigham.
Places of Worship.—The churches in Norwich in 1300 were sixty; and a few of them had round towers, but none had spires. The places of worship within the borough, at the census of 1851, were 41 of the Church of England, with 15, 551 sittings; 3 of Independents, with 2, 246 s.; 4 of Particular Baptists, with 2, 447 s.; 1 of General Baptists, with 300 s.; 3 of Baptists not defined, with 256 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 408 s.; 1 of Unitarians, with 500 s.; 5 of Wesleyans, with 2, 191 s.; 4 of Primitive Methodists, with 1,054 s.; 1 of Wesleyan Reformers, with 570 s.; 1 of Lady Huntingdon’s Connexion, with950 s.; 1 of the New Church, with 132 s.; 11 of isolated congregations, with 1, 740 s.; 1 of Latter Day Saints, with 400 s.; 1 of Roman Catholics, with 250 attendants; and 1 of Jews, with 89 s. The places of worship, in 1867, exclusive of those in public institutions, were at least 43 of the Church of England, 3 of Independents, 10 of Baptists, 1 of Quakers, 1 of Unitarians, 3 of Wesleyans, 5 of Primitive Methodists, 1 of United Free Methodists, 1 of Lady Huntingdon’s Connexion, 1 of the New Church or Swedenborgians, 1 of a local mission, 1of Latter Day Saints, 2 of Roman Catholics, and 1 of Jews.
All Saints’ church is partly Norman, has a round tower, and contains a curious decorated font. St. Andrew’s church is the second in the city for splendour; has a nave and chancel, rebuilt in 1506, and a tower, re-built in 1478; and contains an old font, two brasses of the 15th century, and a fine monument, with two recumbent effigies, to the memory of Sir John Suckling and his lady. St. Benedict’s church has a round tower. St. Clement’s church contains some brasses. St. Etheldred’s has a Norman door and a low tower, and contains an old font. St. George’s church, Colegate, was rebuilt at four periods between 1459 and 1513; is in the pointed architecture of these periods; has a lofty tower; and contains a fine altar-tomb and a brass of 1472. St. George’s church, Tombland, has a handsome square tower. St. Giles’ church, occupies a commanding site, with a fine view of the lower parts of the city; was rebuilt in the time of Richard II., and restored and enlarged in 1866; comprises later English old nave and aisles 81 feet long, and decorated English new chancel 35 feet long; cost upwards of £3,000 for the renovation and the new chancel in 1866: has a tower 120 feet high, terminating in battlements and a cupola; and contains two brasses of the 15th century. St. Gregory’s church is ancient, and contains an octagonal font, a brass eagle, some brasses, and a very long epitaph to a Francis Bacon. St. Helen schurch was originally the chapel of St. Giles’ hospital. St. James’ church has an altar-cloth of the 15th century, made from a cope of purple velvet, and richly embroidered. St. John’s church, Madder-market, is ancient, large, and handsome; has a tower surmounted at the angles by four figures; and contains several neat mural tablets, a few brasses, and many ancient monumental inscriptions. St. John-Sepulchre church was founded in the time of Edward the Confessor; consists of nave, transepts, and chancel, with a lofty tower; was restored in 1866, at a cost of about £475; and contains a fine decorated font. St. Julian’s church was founded before the Conquest, and has a disused Saxon porch.
St. Lawrence’ church was built in 1472; is in the pointed style of that date; has a bold square tower 112 feet high; shows, over the W door, carvings of the martyrdoms of St. Lawrence and St. Edmund; and contains a brass of Prior Langley of 1437, and three other brasses. St. Margaret’s church contains a brass of 1551. St. Martin’s church-at-Oak took the latter part of its name from an image of the Virgin Mary hung in an oak, and contains some brasses and a small library. St. Mary’s church-at-Coslany was chiefly rebuilt in 1477; has a round tower of much more ancient date; and contains a panelled pulpit, six ancient stalls, and several neat monuments. St. Michael’s church-at-Coslany is later English, of the early part of the 16th century; includes a lady-chapel so incrusted in the interior with black flints and sandstone as to exhibit an appearance similar to that of some old cabinets inlaid with ivory; has a lofty square tower; and contains some glazing of1610, an altar-piece by Heins, and some brasses. St. Michael’s church-at-Thorn contains an oak lectern. St. Peter’s church-Mancroft ranks next to the Cathedral for splendour; is fine later English of 1430-55; measures 212 feet in length, 70 feet in width, and 60 feet in height; comprises nave, aisles, and chancel, with N and S porches; has a massive square W tower 100 feet high, with a peal of 12 bells; was restored in 1862; contains a fine old font, a tomb of Sir Thomas Browne, author of” Religio Medici, ” some other old tombs and a brass of1470; and has, in the vestry, a portrait of Sir Thomas Browne, old portraits of some saints, and some old illuminated manuscripts. St. Peter’s church, South-gate, contains a brass of a priest of 1487. St. Simon and St. Jude’s church contains some brasses and monuments. St. Stephen’s church was rebuilt in the 16th century; comprises nave, aisles, and two small chapels, with a square tower; has a large E window filled with stained glass of 1601; and contains a font of the 16th century, three brasses of that century, and some curiosities. St. Swithin’s church contains a brass of a merchant of the time of Edward IV. Trinity church, in Heigham parish, was built in 1861; is in the decorated English style; consists of nave, transepts, and chancel, with tower and handsome slate spire; measures 130 feet in length, within walls; and contains 1, 120 sittings. A church in Thorpe hamlet, within Thorpe parish, is of recent erection and in the Norman style.
The Independent chapel in Clement parish is a large neat square building, with Corinthian pilasters. The Independent chapel in Princes-street is a structure of white brick, erected at a cost of £4, 500. One of the Baptist chapels is an ornamental edifice, built at a cost of £5,000. The Unitarian chapel is an octagonal building, with a tetra style Ionic portico; and has a beautiful dome-roof, supported by eight fluted Corinthian columns. The Primitive Methodist chapel in Dereham-road was built in 1864. The Swedenborgian chapel was originally a Walloon church. One of the Roman Catholic chapels is a neat brick building, 90 feet by 40, with Ionic and Corinthian decorations. Two public cemeteries are situated respectively in Thorpe hamlet and in the W suburb; they are spacious and ornamental; and each of them has two chapels for respectively Churchmen and Dissenters.
Nineteen monastic institutions, including the Benedictine priory already mentioned in connexion with the Cathedral, were formerly in Norwich. The Benedictine priory was designed to be auxiliary to the Cathedral; had 60 monks on its foundation; possessed revenues at the dissolution amounting to £1,050; and, at the Reformation, was merged into the Cathedral, by transmutation of its prior and monks into dean and prebendaries. St. Leonard’s monastery, on Mousehold heath, was a cell of the Benedictine priory; was founded by Bishop De Losinga; had an alleged miraculous image of Henry VI., which drew many devotees; and was given, at the dissolution, to Thomas Duke of Norfolk. The Benedictine nunnery at Carrow was founded, in 1146, for a prioress and nine nuns; was given, at the dissolution, to Sir John Shelton; and is now, or lately was, represented by a small part of its boundary wall. St. Mary-in-the-Fields was founded, about 1250, by John le Brun, as a monastic hospital; was transmuted into a college for a dean, ten prebendaries, and six chantry priests; was given, at the dissolution, to Dr. Miles Spencer, the last dean; and is now represented by a hall with arms of the Hobarts, the Cornwallises, and others. The Augustinian friary was founded in the time of Edward I., by R. Miniot; acquired much wealth from a peculiarly privileged chapel, called Scala Cœli, akin in character to only two others in England; and was given, at the dissolution, to Sir Thomas Heneage. The Blackfriars’ monastery was founded in 1226; and the church and some other building’s of it still exist, and have been noticed, in a previous section, in our account of St. Andrew’s hall. The Greyfriars’ monastery was founded in 1226, by John de Hastingford; and was given, at the dissolution, to the Duke of Norfolk. The White friars’ monastery was founded in 1256, by Philip Fitzwarren; was given, at the dissolution, to Richard Andrews and Leonard Chamberlayne; and is now represented by some remains, which gave name to a public house, and were a tone time used as a Baptist chapel. The monastery of the friars De Domina was founded before 1290; the monastery of the friars of St. Mary was of similar date, and has sometimes been confounded with the preceding; the monastery of the friars De Pica also was founded about the same time, and was the only house of its order in England; the monastery of the friars De Sacco was founded in 1250; and all these four were small institutions, and either became extinct, or were united to the larger ones, a considerable time before the Reformation. God’s House, Hildebrand de Mercer’s hospital, and four lazar-houses were founded respectively in the time of Edward I., about the year 1200, and in the time of Edward III.; and they all were comparatively poor, with little or no endowed property, and disappeared at or soon after the Reformation. St. Mary Magdalene’s hospital was founded by Bishop de Losinga; seems to have been originally a lazar-house; survived the Reformation; and was transmuted into the infirmary. St. Giles’ hospital was founded in 1249, by Bishop Suffield; was given, at the dissolution, to the city corporation: and survives as a great public charity.
Schools and Institutions.—There were, within the borough, at the census of 1851, 45 public day schools, with5, 207 scholars; 106 private day schools, with 2, 553 s.:and 55 Sunday schools, with 6, 859 s. One of the public schools, with 40 s., was connected with the workhouse; 5, with 534 s., were endowed schools; 13, with 1, 915 s., were Church of England national schools; 10, with 712 s., were other national schools; 5, with 546 s., were dissenting British schools; 6, with 936 s., were undenominational British; 1, with 102 s., was Baptist; 1, with 67s., was Roman Catholic; 1, with 25 s., was for the blind:and 2, with 330 s., were general subscription schools. Twenty-nine of the Sunday schools, with 2, 650 scholars, belonged to the Church of England; 6, with 926 s., to Independents; 4, with 761 s., to Baptists; 1 with 268 s., to Unitarians; 5 with 682 s., to Wesleyans; 2, with 429s., to Primitive Methodists; 3, with 480 s., to Wesleyan Reformers: 4, with 596 s., to undefined Protestant congregations; and 1, with 67 s., to Roman Catholics. The schools in 1867, though no reliable statistics of them have been obtained, may be assumed to have undergone an increase, from 1851, at least proportionate to the increase of population; and they were reported to us, in general terms, by a good local authority, as more numerous, both of the upper class and of the lower class, than in any other town of the same size in England.
The free grammar school was founded in 1325, by Bishop Salmon; underwent change after the Reformation, so as to take the name of Edward VI. ‘s grammar school; was changed again in 1858, and then placed under the management of the dean of Norwich and 20 other trustees; is held in the charnel-house, connected with the Cathedral; is divided into upper and lower schools; has £100 a year from endowment, and an interest in 15scholarships at Cambridge; and numbers among its pupils Archbishop Parker, Bishops Cousin, T.-Greene, Maltby, and Monk, Dr. Cains the founder of Cains college at Cambridge, Wild the learned tailor, Admiral Lord Nelson, and Coke. The diocesan training institution was founded in 1852; is situated on St. George’s plain; acts as a normal and model school for school mistresses; and is under the inspection of the Committee of Council on education, and in connexion with the National society. The boys’ and girls’ hospital schools were founded in 1618, by Thomas Anguish; admit on the foundation, 69 boys and 50 girls; allow to each boy £10 a year, to each girl £8 a year, for board with parents or friends; and have an endowed income of £2,097, in the boys’ department, and £1,012 in the girls’ department. Baron’s girls school has an endowed income of £536; Scott’s school has £137; Balderstone’s school has also £137; Norman s school has £650, and maintains 30 boys:and several other schools have endowments. The commercial school, in Bridge-street, is connected with the free grammar school. The Lancasterian school, in College-court, educates about 300 children, and is supported principally by dissenters. The Stanley home for servants, in Back-lane, includes a training school for servants. The school for the blind, in Magdalene-street, was founded in 1805, at a cost of about £1,000; has an income commonly of about £1, 300 a year; and is open to the blind from every part of the kingdom. Model schools exist for respectively boys, girls, and infants. National schools and British schools are still distributed similarly to what they were in 1851. New parochial schools for St. Peter’s-Mountergate and St. Stephen’s were built respectively in 1835 at a cost of £1,000, and in 1866 at a cost of £1, 500.
The Literary institution was established in 1822; was removed to a new and handsome building in St. Andrew-street in 1839; and has now a library of about 12,000 volumes. The Public library was instituted in 1784; is situated in the market-place; and has now about 18,000 volumes. The City library had about 2,000 volumes, the Penny library about 2,000 volumes; and these have been merged in the Free library. The Dean and Chapter library has about 3, 200 volumes; and the Medical book society has about 4,000 volumes. A museum is in Broad-street; a gallery of fine arts is in London-street; a lecture hall, for lectures, concerts, and exhibitions, formerly a bazaar, is in Broad-street; the Free library and the school of art are in Broad-street; a temperance lecturehall and library is in Broad-street; a Christian knowledge and National societies’ depot is in Bedford-street; a Church of England young men’s institution, with library, is in St. Peter-street; a Young men’s Christian association room is in St. Giles-street; and a Building and Land societies’ office is in Bethel-street.
The Norfolk and Norwich hospital, or infirmary, stands in St. Stephens-gate; was founded in 1772, and built at a cost of £13, 323; contains accommodation for upwards of 100 in-patients; and has attached to it a small medical school. The County lunatic asylum stands about a mile S E of Thorpe village; was erected in 1814, at a cost of £39, 828; underwent subsequent extensive alterations; is a great and handsome range of white brick buildings; has spacious grounds, amid salubrious environs; and contains accommodation for upwards of 400 inmates. The Bethel hospital for poor lunatics stands in Bethel-street; was erected at a cost of £1, 630; and has accommodation for 70 patients. St. Giles’ hospital, already mentioned in our account of the monastic institutions, stands in Bishopgate-street; is sometimes called the Great hospital; gives board and lodging to 93 aged men and 88 women; and has an endowed income of £6, 300. Doughty’s hospital stands in Calvert-street; was founded in 1687; accommodates 28 poor men and 11 women; and has an endowed income of £980. Cooke’s hospital stands on the site of the Greyfriars’ monastery; accommodates10 poor inmates; and has an endowed income of £172. There are also endowed alms-houses, a charity for clergymen’s widows and children, a lying-in-charity, a dispensary, a homœopathic dispensary, an eye infirmary, an orphans’ home, a Magdalene institution, an association for relief of decayed tradesmen and their widows and orphans, and a variety of benevolent, religions, and miscellaneous institutions. The total amount of endowed charities is not less than £15, 395 a year.
Trade and Manufactures.—A head post-office‡ is in Post-Office-street; receiving post-offices‡ are in Magdalene-street and St. Stephens-street; other receiving post-offices are in Lower King-street, Upper St. Giles-street, Dereham-road, Thorpe hamlet, Lakenham, and New Calton; and postal pillar-boxes are in various parts of the city and the suburbs. Telegraph offices are at the railway-stations, and in Exchange-street and Market-place. Offices of the chamber of commerce are in St. Giles-street. Banking-offices are in Castle-meadow, London-street, and Old Haymarket. Principal hotels are in St. Giles-street, Oxford-hill, and Market-place. Five weekly newspapers are published on Saturday; two weekly newspapers, on Wednesday; and one bi-weekly newspaper, on Wednesday and Saturday. A market for corn and cattle is held on every Wednesday and Saturday; a fair for horses and cattle, on the day before Good Friday; and pleasure fairs, at Easter and Whitsuntide. Textile manufactures have been largely carried on since so early a period as the time of Henry I.; they have varied and changed, at different periods, as to both the kinds of fabric made and the nature of the raw material employed; they have always been of a character to suit the demands of the general market; they acquired fresh vigour from the introduction of the factory system; they are now so extensive as to make Norwich rank, in the production of them, next to Manchester, London, and Glasgow; and they produce principally bombazines, crapes, gauzes, challis, mousselin-de-laine, fillover shawls, silk shawls, bandanas, camlets, mohair, para-mattas, poplins, bareges, glove cloths, sewing-cotton, coach-lace, haircloth, sacking, and sailcloth. The bootand shoe trade also is extensive, and has become a staple. There are likewise an extensive mustard, starch, and blue manufactory, several large foundries, agricultural implement establishments, steam-boiler works, machine works.coach-works, pianoforte and organ works, tanneries, breweries, malt kilns, dye-houses, soaperies, chemical works, rope-works, and paper-mills. The persons employed, within the city, at the census of 1861, in woollen cloth manufacture, were 17 males under 20 years of age, 51 males at 20 years of age and upwards, 30 females under 20 years of age, and 41 females at 20 years of age and upwards; in worsted manufacture, 15 and 201m., and 68 and 142 f.; in silk manufacture, 51 and 880m., and 478 and 1, 242 f.; in cotton manufacture, 17and 112 m., and 155 and 281 f.; in weaving (undefined), 8 and 145 m., and 21 and 219 f.; in shawl manufacture, 2 and 22 m., and 3 and 20 f.; in shoe and boot making, 672 and 2, 480 m., and 471 and 1, 620 f.; in engine and machine making, 43 and 141 m.; in tool making, and in occupations connected with it, 33 and 191 m., and 8 and 24 f.; in rope and cord making, 16 and 36 m., and 1 f.; in paper making, 9 and 21 m., and 4 and 17 f. The goods are exported partly by railway to London and other places, but chiefly by the river Yare for shipment at Yarmouth and Lowestoft. Norwich itself was anciently a seaport; lost that character through geognostic changes in the Yare, altering it from estuary into mere river; re-acquired it by deepening of the river’s bed, and by forming of a navigation to Lowestoft; obtained great increase in facility of conveyance by the establishment of steam-packets on the river; and, though not itself a head port, supplies to thehead ports of Yarmouth and Lowestoft, one-half or more of all their commerce. The river-carriage of agricultural produce, coal, and other heavy articles, is conducted chiefly in lighters, of from 15 to 20 tons burden.
The Borough.—Norwich was first chartered by Henry I.; has sent two members to parliament since the time of Edward I.; is of the same extent municipally as parliamentarily; has the same boundaries since the reform act of 1832 which it had before; has a separate commission of the peace; and is divided into eight wards, and governed by a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors. It is the place of election, and a polling-place, for the E division of the county; is the seat of a county court, and the head of an excise collection; is the place of assizes, and a place of quarter sessions, for the county; and has, for itself, a daily borough court, daily sessions, and quarter sessions. The city police and fire brigade occupy the basement of the Guildhall. The police force, in 1864, comprised 1 head constable, 1 superintendent, 5 inspectors, 10 serjeants, 63 constables, and 4 detectives; and cost £5, 875, of which £1, 357 were paid from the national treasury. The crimes committed, in 1864, were155; the persons apprehended, 113; the depredators and suspected persons at large, 514; the houses of bad character, 76. Acres of the city, 5, 920. Corporation income in 1855, £19, 268. Real property in 1860, inclusive of the ultra-urban portions of Hellesdon, Thorpe, and Trowse, £239, 811; of which £800 were in gas-works. Amount of property and income tax charged in 1863, £22,088. Electors in 1833, 4, 238; in 1868, 5, 682. Pop.in 1693, 28, 881; in 1801, 35, 734; in 1831, 61, 110; in 1851, 68, 713; in 1861, 74, 891. Houses, 17, 112. .
The District.—The poor-law district is narrower in ultra-mural area and somewhat less in population than the borough; and is divided into the sub-districts of Coslany, East Wymer, Conisford, Mancroft, and West Wymer. Coslany sub-district contains the parishes of St. Mary-at-Coslany, St. Michael-at-Coslany, St. George-Colegate, St. Martin-at-Oak, St. Augustine, and St. Clement, and the hamlet of Hellesdon. Pop. in 1851, 12, 881; in 1861, 13, 260. Houses, 3, 144. East Wymer sub-district contains the parishes of St. Paul, St. Saviour, St. Edmund, St. Simon and St. Jude, St. Peter-Hungate, St. Michael-at-Plea, St. Martin-at-Palace, St. Helen, and St. James, and the hamlet of Thorpe. Pop. in 1851, 13, 602; in 1861, 13, 641. Houses, 3,051. Conisford sub-district contains the parishes of St. George-Tombland, St. Peter-Mountergate, St. John-Timberhill, All Saints, St. Michael-at-Thorn, St. Julian, St. Etheldred, St. John-Sepulchre, and St. Peter-Southgate, and the hamlets of Trowse-Millgate, Carrow, and Bracondale. Pop. in 1851, 12,080; in 1861, 12, 983. Houses, 2, 922. Mancroft sub-district contains the parishes of St. Peter-Mancroft, St. Giles, St. Stephen, Eaton, St. Andrew, and Lakenham, and the liberty of Town Close. Pop. in 1851, 14, 631; in 1861, 14, 397. Houses, 3, 230. West Wymer sub-district contains the parishes of St. Andrew, St. John-Maddermarket, St. Gregory, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Swithin, St. Benedict, Heigham, and Earlham. Pop. in 1851, 15,001; in 1861, 20, 159. Houses, 4, 677. Acres of the district, 4, 325. Poor-rates in 1863, £37, 114. Pop. in 1851, 68, 195; in 1861, 74, 440. Houses, 17,024. Marriages in 1863, 714; births, 2, 503, of which 261 were illegitimate; deaths, 1,877, of which744 were at ages under 5 years, and 57 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 7, 489; births, 23, 519; deaths, 17, 774. The workhouse stands on a plot of nearly 10 acres, in the Dereham road, and within Heigham parish, about a mile N of the city-proper; was built in 1859-60, at a cost of £33,000; occupies, exclusive of yards, but inclusive of workshops, an area of 64,000 square feet; is in the Tudor style, of red bricks, with white brick dressings; presents a frontage of 400 feet, with entrance-front of 250 feet, infirmary-front of 120 feet, and lunatic-ward front of 105 feet; measures, in the main flank, including the chapel, 230 feet; has accommodation for 1,000 inmates; and, at the census of 1861, had 635. The affairs of the district are administered under a local act.
The Diocese.—A bishopric of East Anglia was founded in 630 at Siltheston, afterwards called Dunwich, in Suffolk; seems to have been co-extensive with the East Anglian kingdom; did not differ much in limits from the present diocese of Norwich; and was divided, about the close of the 7th century, by Bisus or Bosa the fourth bishop, into two sees. These remained separate for about two centuries; they suffered much distraction from the invasions of the Danes; and, according to some authorities, but seemingly not the best, they both were for about a century vacant. One of them was seated at North Elmham in Norfolk; and the two were re-united toward the close of the 9th century, in the person of Wybred or Wildred. The seat of the re-united diocese was fixed at Elmham; was removed, in 1070, to The t-ford; and was transferred, in 1094, to Norwich. The diocese, as to its seat, has since continued unchanged; and, as to extent and government, has been but slightly modified. The most prominent bishops have been Losinga, who established the see at Norwich and founded the cathedral; John de Gray, who governed Ireland, divided it into counties, placed it under English laws, fought in France, and captured fortresses there; Pandulph, who excommunicated John Lackland; W. Middleton, who acted as guardian of the kingdom; John Salmon and William de Ermine, who were Lord Chancellors; Bateman, who founded Trinity hall, Cambridge; Henry Despencer, who fought as a soldier for the Pope onshore, and as an English admiral at sea; Richard Courtenay, who died at the siege of Harfleur; John de Wakering, who was Lord Privy Seal; Nykke, known as”the blind bishop,” who conducted a traitorous correspondence with the Pope; William Rugg, who deprived the see of its barony; Parkhurst, who was famed for entertaining Oxford scholars; Scambler, called “the scandalous;” John Jegon, called “the wag; ” Montague, called “the excellent; ” Corbet, called “the merry wit; ” Hall, called “the saintly; ” Overall and Sparrow, called”the learned; ” Reynolds, called “the Puritan; ” George Horne, the commentator on the Psalms; and Bathurst, long the only bishop who pleaded for Roman Catholic emancipation. Three of the dignitaries, J. Harpsfield, H. Prideaux, and T. Sherlock, became cardinals; one, John, became archbishop of Smyrna; and one, Montgomery, became bishop of Meath. The cathedral establishment includes the bishop, the dean, three archdeacons, four canons, twenty-four honorary canons, a chancellor, and four minor canons. The income of the bishop is £4, 500; that of each of two of the archdeacons is £200; and that of the other archdeacon is £184. The diocese comprehends all Norfolk, except the parish of Emneth and part of the parish of Brandon, and all Suffolk, except the deaneries of Thedwaster and Thingoe, and parts of the deaneries of Clare, Fordham, and Sudbury; and it is divided into the archdeaconries of Norwich, Norfolk, and Suffolk. Acres, 1, 994, 525. Pop. in 1861, 667, 704. Houses, 147,037.
The archdeaconry of Norwich comprises the deanery of Blofield, containing 35 livings; the d. of Breckles, with15 livings; the d. of Brisley, with 32; the d. of Flegg, with 30; the d. of Holt, with 30; the d. of Ingworth, with 39; the d. of Lynn, in two portions, with 49 and 9; the d. of Norwich, with 36; the d. of Sparham, with 31; the d. of Taverham, with 19; the d. of Thetford, with 4; the d. of Toftrees, with 10; and the d. of Walsingham, with 9. The archdeaconry of Norfolk comprises the deanery of Brooke, with 66 livings; the d. of Burnham, with 30; the d. of Cranwich, with 43; the d of Depwade, with 24; the d. of Fincham, with 38; the d. of Hingham, with 47; the d. of Heacham, with 19; the d. of Humble-yard, with 26; the d. of Redenhall, with 28; the d. of Repps, with 32; the d. of Rockland, with 33; and the d. of Waxham, with 43. The archdeaconry of Suffolk comprises the deanery of Bosmere, with 28 livings; the d. of Carlesford, with 19; the d. of Claydon, with 14; the d. of Colneis, with 12; the d. of Dunwich, with 52; the d. of Hartismere, with 34; the d. of Hoxne, with 25; the d. of Ipswich, with 13; the d. of Loes, with 18; thed. of Lothingland, with 27; the d. of Orford, with 21; the d. of Samford, with 27; the d. of South Elmham, with 9; the d. of Stow, with 15; the d. of Wangford, with 21; and the d. of Wilford, with 16.
Source: The Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales [Wilson, John M]. A. Fullarton & Co. N. d. c. [1870-72].
Below is a list of people that were declared bankrupt between 1820 and 1843 extracted from The Bankrupt Directory; George Elwick; London; Simpkin, Marshall and Co.; 1843.
Abbott James, Norwich, bookseller, Feb. 2, 1830.
Alderson John Kemp, Norwich, plumber and glazier, April 5, 1823.
Alderton James, Norwich, carpenter, May 23, 1826.
Barnard Alfred, Norwich, scrivener, Feb. 8, 1833.
Barnes Philip, Norwich, builder, Dec. 18, 1829.
Batley Richard, Norwich, merchant, Aug. 19, 1828.
Baxter William, Norwich, draper, Nov. 30, 1827.
Beloe Arthur, Norwich, silk manufacturer, July 28, 1829.
Benns Henry, Norwich, cordwainer, Feb. 3, 1832.
Bignold Thomas, sen., Norwich, and Bridge street, Blackfriars, banker and shoe dealer, Nov. 1, 1823.
Blake Dodsbon, Norwich, mohair manufacturer and merchant, May 3, 1842.
Blogg William, Norwich, haberdasher, Jan. 2, 1827.
Boardman Benjamin, Norwich, tailor and draper, April 3, 1835.
Borkwood Thomas, Norwich, beer brewer, Feb. 10, 1829.
Bourne Thomas, Norwich and Exeter, woollen draper, Nov. 6, 1829.
Brittain Anthony, Norwich, grocer and tea dealer. March 2, 1841
Brooks James, Norwich, leather merchant, March 21, 1837.
Brown Crisp, Norwich, corn and coal merchant, Nov. 10, 1829.
Brown Henry, Norwich, laceman and haberdasher, Nov. 9, 1830.
Browne Edward, Norwich, timber merchant, Oct. 6, 1840.
Browne James, St. Stephen’s, Norwich, boot and shoe maker, May 2, 1 826.
Browne John, jun., Norwich, ironfounder, Feb. 29, 1828.
Browne Thomas, Coldwell, Norwich, hatter, April 5, 1839.
Buck James, Norwich, carpenter, Nov. 23, 1827.
Bullen Samuel, Norwich, linen draper, Oct. 10, 1837.