London is situated on the banks of the river Thames, about sixty miles from the sea, and lies in four counties; in Middlesex and Essex to the north of the Thames, and in Kent and Surrey to the south of the Thames. The limits of London, as defined by Act of Parliament for Parliamentary purposes, are “the circumference of a circle, the radius of which is of the length of three miles from the General Post Office.” This would make London about twenty miles in circumference; it is generally said to be about thirty. The City was included with the walls and gates, (such as Ludgate, Newgate, Moorgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Bishopsgate, and Aldgate), and within certain liberties without the wall, marked by bars, – such as Holborn Bars, Whitechapel Bars, Temple Bar, &c.
London, is the metropolis of England and a bishop’s see; and also the seat of the government. It is situated on the banks of the River Thames, about 70 miles from its mouth. What is called London, comprises the cities of London and Westminster (in Middlesex) and the borough of Southwark (in Surrey), and the adjoining suburbs, forming one vast whole, about eight miles long, from East to West, and about five miles in breadth, from North to South. The two great markets are those of Mark-Lane, for corn, on Mondays and Fridays; and Smithfield, for cattle, on the same days. There are also the markets of Newgate, Newport, Hungerford, Covent-Garden, the Borough (Southwark), Finsbury, Portman-Street, etc. for meat and vegetables, held daily. Population of the City of London, 125,008; of the city of Westminster, 222,053; and of the Borough of Southwark, 98,648, as given under that head in Surrey.
Source: Leonard’s Gazetteer of England and Wales; Second Edition; C. W. Leonard, London; 1850.